Flora and Fauna of the littoral system: dynamics and protection

Coasts are ecotones between sea and land. These environments, characterized by being the transition point between water and land, are small in size considering the orthogonal direction to the shore-line. Furthermore, coastal environments are highly dynamic, and in the case of sandy beaches, they are subjected to instability factors due to cyclic phenomena like tides and unpredictable phenomena like sea and coastal storms, which area increasing due to climate change. In addition, the coastal system interacts with the different land use systems and is often in direct contact with urban environments, where the pressure of human activities on the coast is higher. All these features make up an extremely vulnerable system so that its flora and fauna show particular morpho-physiological, ecological and behavioral adaptations.

Keywords: Natural and artificial beach-dune ecosystems. Rocky ecosystems. Artificial ecosystems. Abiotic factors and water quality. Biodiversity and functioning of ecosystems. Analysis of the effects of impact factors on ecosystems. Methodologies of impact mitigation and restoration. Monitoring of coastal ecosystems.